Type 2 myocardial infarction current concepts and our experience with cardiac rehabilitation

Aiman Smer, Ray W. Squires, Ahmed Aboeata, Melissa J. Bowman, Kasara A. Mahlmeister, Jose R. Medina-Inojosa, Amanda R. Bonikowske, Apurva Patel, Michael Del Core, Mark A. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) is commonly encountered in clinical practice, yet little is known about this challenging condition. Outpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an integral component in the care of patients with MI. However, specific recommendations for CR, information on the feasibility of participation, and outcome measures for patients with T2MI are lacking. Clinical Considerations: The frequency of T2MI is markedly variable and depends on the studied population, disease definition, adjudication process, cardiac troponin assays, and cutoff values used to make the diagnosis of T2MI. Clinically, it is difficult to distinguish T2MI from type 1 MI or myocardial injury. Type 2 myocardial infarction occurs due to myocardial oxygen supply-demand mismatch without acute atherothrombotic plaque disruption and is associated with adverse short- and long-term prognoses. Currently, there are substantial gaps in knowledge regarding T2MI and there are no clear guidelines for the optimal management of these patients. Summary: In this article, we present important current concepts surrounding T2MI including the definition, pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and management. We also discuss referral patterns to CR and participation rates and provide our experience with a case series of 17 patients. Very few patients with T2MI are referred to and participate in CR. Our small case series indicated that patients with T2MI respond favorably to CR and that exercise training following standard guidelines appears safe and is well tolerated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-152
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Rehabilitation
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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