Technical aspects of inguino scrotal hernia surgery in developing countries

K. Shine, C. Oppong, R. Fitzgibbons, G. Campanelli, W. Reinpold, S. Roll, D. Chen, C. J. Filipi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Technical aspects of inguinoscrotal herniorrhaphy performed in low to middle income countries (LMICs) are described here to help surgeons who will operate on these challenging hernias in austere settings. Methods: Technical considerations related to operative repair were delineated with the consensus of 7 surgeons with extensive experience in inguinoscrotal hernia repair in LMICs. Important steps and illustrations were prepared accordingly. The anatomical and pathologic differences and technical implications of operating in limited resource settings are emphasized with suggestions to approach anticipated challenges. Pre-operative evaluation, anesthetic considerations, and technical guidelines are offered in context. Results: The authors have cumulatively performed over 1775 inguinoscrotal Lichtenstein operations in LMICs. While dedicated, reliable, long-term follow-up is unavailable from LMICs, one author reports outcomes with 5 year follow-up from the HerniaMed registry using the identical technique in similarly classed hernias. In 90 inguinoscrotal Lichtenstein repair patients (78.3% follow-up), there was one recurrence, low rates of chronic pain (2.2% at rest, 4.4% with activity), and low rates of reintervention (1.1%). Conclusion: There is a difference between inguinal hernias found in LMICs and those seen in high-income countries with larger, chronic, and more technically challenging pathology. The consequences of intra-operative complications can be catastrophic in a LMIC. Technical measures are offered to improve outcomes, avoid and manage complications, and provide optimal care to this important population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)173-179
Number of pages7
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery


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